The general subject of the unit that we are starting today is:
Work and Leisure.
Let’s talk about it.
“In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread”.
Explain the quotation above.
- Where is the quotation taken from?
- What is the attitude to work in the verse?
- What is the attitude of most people to work today?
Bible – תנ”ך
verse – פסוק
quotation – ציטוט
curse – קללה
Getting ready to Read
The passage you are about to read deals with the significance of work.
- Why do people work? (Discuss the reasons of different people.)
- Would you work if you could afford not to? Discuss!
- Many people join voluntary organizations and work without being paid. Why?
Read the following passage and then answer the questions that follow.
1. Many people spend years acquiring an education and gaining the knowledge that will enable them to become productive members of society. Then they settle down to the real business of life: work. Broadly speaking, a man devotes about one third of his adult life – eight hours a day – to work. The type of work he does, the salary he earns and the satisfaction he derives from work largely determine his social status and the quality of his life.
2. Just as students at school appreciate their recesses and wait eagerly for their vacations, people at work often throw glances at the clock (dreaming about the lunch-break), look forward to their weekends and can’t wait for their yearly vacations. Sometimes, even the flu is a welcome relief from the standard routine since it may mean a couple of unexpected days off.
3. Would we appreciate vacations if we didn’t work all year long? Would we enjoy the weekend if if we didn’t spend our weekdays at work? Many years ago, in 1955, Morse and Weiss conducted research on the significance of work. They interviewed thousands of American working adults. When asked whether they would continue working if a large inheritance enabled them to live comfortably without work, most of them (about 80%) answered positively. The researchers concluded that work is, for most people, more than just a way to make a living. It is a source of satisfaction and self-fulfillment; it helps a person feel an integral part of society, a productive citizen. In studies conducted recently, in the USA and Canada, researchers have reached similar conclusions.
4. In short, why do people work?
The main reason why most people work is the need to provide themselves and their families with the basic essentials of life: food, clothing and shelter. Once these basic essentials are met, other needs become important. People need companionship. Work provides the opportunity to associate with people who have similar interests. Being part of a group gives people a sense of belonging. Work enables personal development – an opportunity to grow intellectually and socially. A good job provides not only a good salary. When you do something that is beneficial or useful to others, when you enjoy what you are doing, that certainly contributes to your overall happiness.
1. Complete the following sentence according to paragraph 1.
Many people study for————————————— in order to —————————————— necessary for ——————————————.
2. Workers are sometimes happy to get the flu (paragraph 2) since it is
a. a nice experience.
b. only a light illness.
c. a good reason for staying off work.
d. part of the routine.
3. According to paragraph 3 most people enjoy their vacations
a. because they don’t like to work.
b. as long as they work the rest of the time.
c. although they work the rest of the time.
d. because they appreciate everything.
4. What did Morse and Weiss do (paragraph 3)?
5. Who was the target population (paragraph 3)?
6. What did 20% of the people who were interviewed reply (paragraph 3) ?
7. Complete the following sentences according to paragraph 3.
The researchers’ conclusion was that for most people work is not only ————————————————–, but also ——————————————. The worker feels ——————————————.
8. Complete the following sentences according to paragraph 4.
People start considering the social and intellectual opportunities of the job they have chosen only after —————————————————————————————–.
9. How does work contribute to our happiness (paragraph 4)?
10. Match the following headings to the suitable paragraphs. There is one extra heading.
The need for vacations paragraph…
The European research paragraph…
The American research paragraph…
Work motivation paragraph…
The relation between work and the quality of life paragraph……
Language and Vocabulary Exercises
Fill in the blanks with suitable words. Write one word only in each blank.
- Many people don’t know what to do with their ———————- time. Instead of —————————- it, they become ——————– and irritated. Hobbies can ————————- these empty hours with pleasure and ———————————–. If you collect butterflies or engage in bird-watching, for example, you can spend —————————- examining your collection or following the route of your favorite birds. If you ————————– literature and music, you will never feel lonely or bored —————————— long as there are books and records around you. Sport ————————- are an excellent way to fill your spare time and improve your heath and looks as ————————-. Therefore, let’s stop brooding and start developing some hobbies instead.
- I worked ———————— hard last year that I could hardly wait for the summer ———————-. I was so excited by then, that I decided to do nothing all summer but rest. I dreamt about ———————- up at eleven or twelve in the morning, hanging around the house for a ————- of hours and returning to bed with a pile of ——————— and magazines. At the beginning, everything seemed great. After a few days, ——————–, I began to wonder ————————— that was the best way to spend the ———————– summer. I was not as happy as I had expected to be. Actually, I was quite bored and rather depressed. Besides, lying all day in bed and eating every twenty ———————– had not improved my figure… Finally, I got out of bed and started to revise my plans. I would take a part-time job and spend the rest of the day with ———————. As for sleep, I could get back all the sleep I needed in winter, just like the bears.
And that’s all for today. More texts and suggestions in my next post.