טיפים למורים

רוצים ללמד אנגלית ביעילות ובמהירות?
היעזרו בניסיוני כמורה לאנגלית כשפה זרה.
להלן רשימת הנושאים שפרסמתי עד כה. מדי שבוע יופיע נושא חדש.
עקבו אחר כל השינויים והחידושים. 
פנו אלי לגבי כל שאלה או הבהרה ותיענו בהקדם.

הקש על התחום המבוקש ובחר מתוך רשימת נושאים:

כללי

דקדוק

הבנת הנקרא

כתיבה

דיבור והבנת הנשמע

הערכה – מבחנים

 

Teaching Grammar

Teaching Grammar – an impossible mission? Teaching Grammar is not an impossible mission. I have been an English teacher for over 40 years and I would like to share my experience and teaching approach with teachers and students who may or may not be familiar with the books I have published and the lectures and…

English Grammar – Teaching Methods

When we teach English Grammar, choosing the right teaching methods may be one of the most important decisions. Before we do that, we have to consider who our target population is: Target Population 1. Elementary School I don't think Grammar should be taught explicitly at this level. Students  may not be interested and even fail to understand…

More about Lesson Plans

Lesson Plans The lesson plan must reflect the content of the lesson and its objectives. I think it might be best to start every English lesson at every level with an oral activity. The conversation can deal with current events or any relevant subject.  After a few minutes, we should somehow relate the talk to…

Teaching Grammar – High School and Adults

High School students and Adults may need a different approach as far as teaching Grammar is concerned. Our target Population As I have often said, before we choose the teaching method, we have to consider our target population. Ten-year-olds may not be interested in abstract rules, but high school students, college students and adults are more…

Teaching Grammar – Conclusions

So what are our conclusions regarding Teaching Grammar? 1. Grammar is a means toward reaching a high level of proficiency, not an end in itself. 2. Teaching Grammar can be effective, interesting and even enjoyable. Use short, interesting, relevant texts based on prior knowledge. The texts should be relatively simple. Students will thus be able…

Lesson Plan – Focus on Writing

Last time we spoke about a lesson focusing on Reading Comprehension. Today's lesson plan will focus on Writing. If we want to focus on Writing, we will still start with an oral activity since this is the most natural, authentic way to start an English lesson and create a language atmosphere. We should decide what…

Focus on Grammar – Lesson Plan

Focus on Grammar – Lesson Plan We have already dealt with Lesson Plans in general. This time we will deal with a lesson focusing on Grammar. Remember, we are not teaching Grammar as an isolated item, but as an integral part of the English lesson and always in context. We will start as usual with an…

Teaching the Present and the Future

The first subject we will discuss is Tenses. This is a subject many Israeli pupils find problematic, difficult and therefore, boring. It is neither difficult nor boring if taught in a clear, interesting way. We will start by presenting the Cycle of the Present. In the Cycle of the Present we  have two kinds of…

Teaching the Present Simple – Texts and Exercises

Teaching the Present Simple – Practical Tips Suggestions for Oral or Writing Activities:   What do you usually do during the summer? I usually wake up… Sometimes… In the afternoon… In the evening… At night… and during the school year?   Do you have any special interests / hobbies? What do you like to do?…

Teaching the Future Simple

We have already discussed the Present Simple and the Present Progressive and we are now moving to the Future Simple. I think it is important to teach the Future Simple right after the Present in order to complete the Cycle of the Present. We have several kinds of Future in English, but only one in Hebrew…

Teaching the Pr. Prog. and F. Simple – Texts and Exercises

In order to teach or review the Present Simple, the Present Progressive and the Future Simple, we need suitable texts and oral and writing activities. We are about to complete activities concerning the Cycle of the Present. In my last post I presented texts and activities regarding the Present Simple. I will now suggest texts…

Teaching Temporal Clauses

We are still talking about the Cycle of the Present. For Grammar to become an integral part of the English lesson, for Grammar to be absorbed, understood and applied in oral and writing activities by our students, continuous  review and practice are essential. As I have often said, Grammar must be taught in context. This…

Teaching Stative Verbs

We have practically finished the Cycle of the Present, but I would like to write a few lines concerning Stative Verbs. I have seen over the years many students struggling over long lists of Stative Verbs that they were asked to memorize. I am afraid this is not a very efficient approach. Instead of memorizing…

Teaching the Past Simple

We have already completed  the Cycle of the Present  and we are now starting the Cycle of the Past. The first tense we will deal with is the Past Simple. We can start the lesson on the Past Simple with an oral activity where we would naturally use the Past Simple. We can talk about…

Teaching the Past Simple – Int. and Neg. Forms

My last post dealt with the Past Simple and it's time we discussed the Interrogative and Negative Forms. The structure of questions in English is problematic for the Israeli students since they tend to translate from Hebrew. In Hebrew we can ask a question by simply changing the intonation: אנחנו הולכים הביתה. (צורה חיובית) אתם…

Teaching the Past Progressive

My last post focused on the Past Simple and now we will be dealing with the Past Progressive. The structure is not difficult since it is like the structure of the Present Progressive that students already know. The only difference is that we have to use the Past of the verb Be (was, were) instead…

Teaching the Future Past

Last time we studied the Past Progressive. What kind of Future will we use for a future action in a text in the Past? In English we have various kinds of Future. In Hebrew we have one. That is why our students may find this issue problematic. In English we have a real future –…

Teaching the Cycle of the Past – Practical Tips

We have already dealt with the Cycle of the Present and we are now moving to the Cycle of the Past. I will deal with the Cycle of the Past  in this article, explain the rationale of my approach and present a lesson plan with practical examples to be used in the classroom. The Cycle of the Past According to my model…

Teaching the Cycle of the Past – Texts and Exercises

I discussed the Cycle of the Past in my last post: rationale, unit structure, lesson plan, etc. The following are texts and exercises to be used when teaching or reviewing the unit. Reading Passage Ben, David's uncle, called from New York last week. He said  he was planning a visit to Israel and would probably…

Teaching Basic Verbs – Verb Be

We have already studied the six basic tenses: Present Simple and Present Progressive Past Simple and Past Progressive Future Simple and Future Past. Before we proceed to the Perfect tenses, we will stop and deal with the three basic verbs: Be, Do and Have. Knowing and understanding the structure and functions of these verbs will…

Teaching Verb Have

We have already discussed two Basic Verbs: Be and Do. Today we will deal with HAVE and complete the unit of Basic Verbs.  Verb Have Verb Have has three functions:  Helping Verb in Perfect Tenses  Modal – have to – meaning: must  Independent verb meaning possession.    1.  Have as a helping verb will be…

Teaching BE, DO and HAVE

Last week we finished the Basic Verbs: BE, DO and HAVE. Let's focus on the pedagogical aspect this time: a few teaching suggestions. Teaching Be, Do and Have We should always try to teach Grammar in context, as part of the overall process of teaching a language, Grammar being a means towards reaching a high level…

Teaching the expressions: there is, there are, it is

We have already studied the verb HAVE. Today we will deal with the expressions THERE IS and THERE ARE. These expressions may be confusing for Hebrew Speakers. I have a book. (יש לי) Dana also has a book. (יש לה)         but There is a book on the table. (יש) There are books…

Teaching the Present Perfect

Let's start with a short review of the posts concerning the verb. We have finished the Cycle of the Present and the Cycle of the Past. We have studied the Cycle of the Present: Present Simple Present Progressive Future Simple We have also studied the Cycle of the Past: Past Simple Past Progressive Future Past…

Teaching the Present Perfect Progressive

My last post dealt with the Present Perfect. There are still many Perfect Tenses that we have to study. Today we will concentrate on the Present Perfect Progressive.   Present Perfect Progressive   We have been studying all day long, but we haven't finished our homework yet. If we look at the name of the tense,…

Teaching the Past Perfect

We have already dealt with the Present Perfect and the Present Perfect Progressive. It's time for the Past Perfect. The structure is simple and all the information is implied in the name. Since it is a perfect tense, we know we need the helping verb: HAVE. Since it is a Past tense (Past Perfect), we…

Teaching the Past Perfect Progressive

We are going to study the Past Perfect Progressive today. This is a very "important event": Past Perfect Progressive is the last Past tense we have to teach! This is going to be the end of the Cycle of the Past! Past Perfect Progressive Let's observe the name and see how it indicates the structure. It…

Teaching the Future Perfect

Today we will focus on the Future Perfect. As usual, we will observe the name and understand the structure of this tense. Since it is a Future tense, we must have WILL or WOULD. Since it is a Perfect tense, we need the helping verb HAVE. After HAVE we must use the third form of…

Teaching Condition 1

We are now starting the Conditional Sentences. Today, we will deal with Condition 1.      If you work hard, you will succeed. The condition is in Present Simple and the result is in Future Simple. Condition 1 expresses a real condition and it refers to the Future. It is important to remind Hebrew speakers that although…

Teaching Condition 2

My last post dealt with teaching Condition 1 and we are now moving to Condition 2. If you saw my brother now, you would not recognize him.  (לו ראית את אחי עכשיו, לא היית מזהה אותו.) This sentence means that my brother has changed so much that it is impossible to recognize him now. The sentence expresses an…

Teaching Condition 3

Last time we dealt with Condition 2. It's high time for Condition 3.   If I had known the truth, I would have acted in a different way. Structure: The condition is in the Past Perfect and the result is in the Future Perfect. Meaning: Condition 3 refers to the Past. As a result of that, it…

Final lesson on Conditionals – Summary and Review

We examined the third condition last time. It's time to sum up. Conditionals – Summary and Review: Condition 1 If + Present Simple + Future Simple This condition expresses a real possibility. It refers to the FUTURE. If you work hard, you will succeed. (in the Future).  אם תעבוד קשה, תצליח (בעתיד). Condition 2 If…

Teaching Wish Clauses

Wish Clauses express a wish. They may refer to the Future, the Present or the Past. I wish you would come back soon. (Future)   I wish you stayed with me now. (Present)   I wish you had come back earlier. (Past)   Structure:   We use Future Past when the sentence refers to the…

Conditional, Wish and Temporal Clauses – Practical Tips

We have already dealt with the main tenses and we are now moving to Conditional, Wish and Temporal Clauses. In this article, I will explain the rationale of my approach and present the structure of the unit, lesson plans and practical examples of activities to be used in the classroom. Conditional, Wish and Temporal Clauses All structures will be taught in context using appropriate,…

Teaching Conditional, Wish and Temporal Clauses – Exercises

  מאת לאה קירשנברג, תאריך 14 ביוני 2018 In my last post I dealt with Conditional, Wish and Temporal Clauses: rationale, unit structure, lesson plan, etc.The following are texts and exercises to be used when teaching or reviewing the unit.   Reading Passages Conditionals Some people spend so much time and effort feeling sorry for what they missed…

Teaching the Passive

  This post will deal with the pedagogical aspects of teaching the Passive. The first thing I do when I start teaching the Passive Form is explain the concept of the Passive. In an Active sentence, the stress is on the Subject – the performer of the action. In a Passive sentence, the stress is…

Teaching the Passive – Practical Tips

Passive Structures The Passive structures will be taught in context using appropriate, relevant texts. Continuous comparison with Active Structures is strongly recommended. Unit Structure – Junior High In Junior High, I would suggest spending about 3 – 4 lessons on Passive Structures. Lesson 1  Oral Activity introducing the concepts: Active vs Passive. After describing the cartoons, we might have a discussion on…

Teaching the Passive – Texts and Exercises

  In my last post I dealt with Passive Structures: rationale, unit structure, lesson plans, etc. The following are texts and exercises to be used when teaching or reviewing the unit. Reading Passages 1. Mifal Hapayis, the state lottery, was established in 1951 to raise money for public needs. At first, the money was invested in…

Teaching Modals

Teaching Modals is not as simple as it may seem at first sight. First, we have to work on the meaning of the modal.   We will start with CAN. CAN shows ability.   We might start the lesson with a class discussion on things we can or cannot do. We may talk about hobbies (play the…

Teaching Modals – General Tips

We have already dealt with the basic elements concerning Teaching Modals. We will now sum up and review the general teaching tips.   The classic lesson plan includes the following steps: 1. Oral Activity – class conversation using as many modals as possible.  Start the conversation by describing a certain situation: It is raining now.…

Teaching the Infinitive

This post will deal with teaching tips concerning the Infinitive. I would suggest to choose a text in which we have many examples of the use of the Infinitive in order to introduce the structure. This way, students will be exposed to the structure in a relevant context.  We might start with the following picture…

Teaching the Gerund

My last post dealt with teaching the Infinitive. This post will deal with teaching the Gerund. You may wish to choose the following text in order to introduce the Gerund. Spending a few days on a kibbutz can be a very exciting experience. Our class spent an entire week working on a kibbutz in the…

Teaching Tenses

Teaching Tenses – Hebrew Speakers If your students are Hebrew speakers, teaching Tenses may be quite a challenge. In English, there is not only one kind of Present, one kind of Past and one kind of Future, like in Hebrew. That's the main problem. In order to facilitate comprehension of Tenses, I have developed a special…

Summing up the Verb – Review and Practice

How do we approach an exercise where we have to put the verbs in brackets in the suitable tense? I suggest we teach our students to follow these steps: Read the passage carefully without writing anything. Underline the Time Expressions, e.g.  yesterday, five years ago, last year, now, at the moment,  usually, twice a week.…

Summing up Tenses – More Review and Practice

Hebrew speakers find the subject of Tenses very problematic. Things are simpler in Hebrew. There is only one Present, one Past and one Future.  Continuous Review and Practice are highly recommended. Exercises assigned as homework or class activity have to be checked in class, problematic issues have to be discussed and mistakes have to be…

Teaching Nouns

We have been studying the Verb for quite a long time.  It's time to move to the Noun. In this post, I will explain the rationale of my approach and present the structure of the unit on the Noun: Lesson plans and practical examples of activities to be used in the classroom, texts and exercises to be used when teaching or…

Teaching the Adjective

We  discussed the various aspects of the Noun in my last post.  It's time to move to the Adjective. In this post, I will explain the rationale of my approach and present the structure of the unit on the Adjective: Lesson plans and practical examples of activities, texts and exercises to be used when teaching or reviewing the unit. The Adjective…

Teaching the Adverb

 The various aspects of teaching the Adjective were discussed in my last post.  It's time to move to the Adverb. In this post, I will explain the rationale of my approach and present the structure of the unit on the Adverb: Lesson plans and practical examples of activities, texts and exercises to be used when teaching or reviewing the unit. The Adverb…

Teaching Prepositions

The subject of this post is: Teaching Prepositions. In this post, I will explain the rationale of my approach and present the structure of the unit on Prepositions: Lesson plans and practical examples of activities, texts and exercises to be used when teaching or reviewing the unit. Prepositions The Prepositions will be taught in context using appropriate, relevant texts.  Unit Structure – Junior High In Junior…

Can we teach Reading Comprehension?

Yes, we can teach Reading Comprehension. Actually, we must. The big question is HOW? In these posts I will not deal with theoretical aspects and principles regarding Higher-order and Lower-order Thinking Skills – Hots and Lots. I prefer to focus on practical tips illustrated by examples that can be quickly adapted to the class situation.…

Lesson Plan – Focus on Reading Comprehension

Today we will introduce a basic lesson plan focusing on Reading Comprehension. Remember, the lesson should focus on Reading Comprehension, but not consist of Reading Comprehension only. Every lesson should combine 2 or 3 of the following domains: Oral Activities, Writing Activities, Reading and Grammar. After all, We are teaching English, not Writing, Reading or Grammar.…

Following Instructions

If we want students to improve their Reading Comprehension skills, we must teach them the importance of following instructions. Students often ignore instructions or skip part of them. They should be taught to follow instructions carefully. The following exercise is a classic exercise on the need to follow instructions carefully. Hand out the following exercise:…

Reading Comprehension – Finding the main ideas

Finding the main ideas in a text, a paragraph, a sentence is the key to Reading Comprehension. How do we do that? Hand out a text  (three/four paragraphs). The subject of the text should be relevant to your students' interests. The paragraphs should be relatively short. The sentences should be about 1-2 lines long. What…

Teaching Reading Comprehension in Heterogeneous Classes

Teaching Reading Comprehension in heterogeneous classes may prove problematic. It is a serious challenge. Every lesson requires careful planning. The objective is to find a common denominator for all the students and still meet the needs of all or at least most of them, i.e. find a way to enrich the advanced students and enhance…

Oral Activities to promote Reading Comprehension

How can we promote Reading Comprehension? Can Oral Activities help? Can Cartoons stimulate discussion leading to deeper comprehension? Oral Activities and Cartoons can be very useful in the class situation. Reading Comprehension should not be taught by giving hundreds of texts for students to read and answer questions at home or in class. If students…

More Oral Activities to promote Reading Comprehension

How can we make students talk in the English class? Should we use more cartoons to stimulate conversation and promote Reading Comprehension? I think we should. The question is: How?  We spoke about violence in my last post. Since violence is, unfortunately, a very relevant subject, let's continue. As I have already said, I believe that Oral…

Group Activities to enhance Reading Comprehension

Can we use Group Activities to enhance Reading Comprehension? Yes. We can and we should. How can we do that? Let's divide the class into groups of 4 – 6 students. The group has to become a cooperative learning group.  Each student in the group must assume responsibility and participate actively in the group's work.…

Reading and Integrating two Texts

Can we work on two texts in the same lesson? Can Reading and Integrating two Texts enhance Reading Comprehension? How can we do that? Let's divide the class into groups of 4 – 6 students. Half of the groups will be given one text and the other half will get the other text. Both texts…

Reading and Writing – Introduction

Can we combine Reading and Writing? Can the combination of Reading and Writing improve students' abilities in both domains? We will try to answer this question and work on this idea using group activities. How can we do that? Let's divide the class into groups of 4 – 6 students. All the groups will be…

Finding the main idea – Advanced level

Is it always easy to find the main idea of a text? How can we do it? The main idea of a text must appear in every paragraph. A paragraph that does not contain a certain aspect of the main idea or some information closely related to the main idea does not belong to the…

Integrating two texts – Advanced level

Is it possible to integrate two texts? Yes, as long as they deal with different aspects of the same subject or at least, as long as we can find what they have in common. How can we do it? Let's start with the first text. Text No.1* Students often complain about great pressure at school.…

Analyzing and Comparing two texts

Last week we dealt with Integration of two texts. This time we will work on Analyzing and Comparing two texts. How can we do that? We need to find what  the texts have in common. What is the common denominator?     and then, In what way do the texts differ?    Let's start with…

Comprehension – Relevant and Irrelevant Information

We have been working on analysis and integration of texts for a couple of weeks. This time we will focus on relevant and irrelevant information. How can we do that? We have to read the text carefully, find the main ideas and then discard any information that is irrelevant. If we can do that, it…

Oral Activities and Reading Comprehension

Oral Activities, based on prior knowledge, will facilitate comprehension of a Reading Comprehension Passage. We will start with a cartoon. What is the appeal of cartoons? The cartoon will encourage students to talk. Capturing the attention of and engaging pupils during lessons is at times challenging and frustrating. Cartoons are an excellent teaching tool. Pupils…

Reading Comprehension as a process

Reading Comprehension is a process. Different people see different things in a text. Even the same person may sometimes see different things in a text after reading it for the second or third time.  A text is like a picture – it is subject to personal interpretation. In the next posts I will bring different…

More about Reading Comprehension as a process

In my last post we discussed Reading Comprehension as a process. The following is the second text presenting a new aspect of our general theme: Culture, Customs and Manners. The objective is to enrich the students' information and knowledge of the topic since prior knowledge certainly facilitates comprehension of a text. Introducing Text No. 2…

Reading Comprehension as a process-Step 3

  Two weeks ago I published my first post on Reading Comprehension as a process. Last week I published my second post on this topic. The following is my last post centering around the general theme: Culture, Customs and Manners. The rationale behind the unit is to present various texts focusing on different aspects of…

Improving Reading Comprehension

What else can we do to improve Reading Comprehension? Following many teachers' requests, I have decided to bring a few more examples on Reading Comprehension as a process. The objective is: Improving Reading Comprehension. I will bring two texts dealing with different aspects of a certain subject. From text to text we will accumulate information…

Improving Reading Comprehension – Step 2

In my last post we discussed Improving Reading Comprehension. The following is the second text presenting a new aspect of our general theme: Communication Devices. The objective is to enrich the students' information and knowledge of the topic since prior knowledge certainly facilitates comprehension of a text. Introducing Text No. 2 (link to Text No.…

Graphic Organizers to improve Reading Comprehension

Today we will discuss the use of Graphic Organizers to improve Reading Comprehension. What are Graphic Organizers? Graphic Organizers are simple visual tools that allow students to break down stories and nonfiction texts. They also help kids keep track of thoughts as they read.  Who are Graphic Organizers mainly intended for? Every reader will benefit…

More Graphic Organizers to improve Reading Comprehension

Last week we discussed the use of Graphic Organizers to improve Reading Comprehension. Our subject today is Utopia. I will introduce two texts and we will use a graphic organizer to organize the information the texts offer. Introducing Text No.1 Let's start with an Oral Activity. Look at the following cartoon. Click on the link…

Reading and Writing – Intermediate Level

Can we combine Reading and Writing? Can the combination of Reading and Writing improve students' abilities in both domains? We have already talked about this issue in the post called Reading and Writing – Introduction. We will now approach the issue from a different angle. The text will provide information on a certain subject and…

More about Reading and Writing

We have already discussed the importance of combining Reading and Writing. We know that this combination can improve students' abilities in both domains. In my last post I introduced a short text on learning languages. The text provided information on the subject and based on that, students had to deal with Writing Activities.  We will…

Oral Activities leading to Reading and Writing

Today we will discuss Oral Activities leading to Reading and Writing. We will try to combine Oral Activities, Reading and Writing. We will start with Oral Activities. Look at the following cartoon. (Click on soldier 1) soldier 1 Describe the scene and the idea behind it. Do you approve? Is the cartoon realistic, authentic, exaggerated…